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Saintly Heroine: 10 Fascinating Facts About Joan of Arc

When looking into key facts about Joan of Arc, we uncover layers of a story that is as complex as it is inspiring.

This medieval heroine’s life was a blend of mystique, valor, and tragedy, etching her name into the annals of history.

Yet, beyond her well-known narrative of leading French armies and her untimely demise, there lies a treasure trove of lesser-known details that shed new light on her character and the times she lived in.

Did you know, for instance, that Joan’s hairstyle, a practical bob, was a significant statement in 15th-century France?

Or that her trial, fraught with bias and procedural anomalies, was conducted in a language she didn’t understand?

These facts about Joan of Arc and more not only highlight her story’s nuances but also humanize a figure often shrouded in myth. Join us as we delve into ten fascinating and lesser-known facts about this iconic figure, each one revealing a different facet of the Maid of Orléans.

10 Facts About Joan of Arc Listed and Explained

The first intriguing fact on our list of Joan of Arc’s remarkable life is her unique armor, which not only provided physical protection on the battlefield but also symbolized her unwavering courage and determination.

1. Unique Armor Design

Joan of Arc’s armor, an integral part of the many fascinating facts about Joan of Arc, was a distinctive and purposeful element of her identity as a military leader.

Unlike typical armors of the era, hers was custom-made to suit her slender frame, ensuring both protection and mobility on the battlefield.

Historical accounts suggest that the design might have been crafted to obscure her gender, aligning with her role as a warrior while maintaining her modesty as a devout Christian.

The armor was likely made of polished steel, consisting of a breastplate, backplate, gauntlets, and leg armor, all intricately designed for maximum effectiveness.

Remarkably, Joan’s armor did not include a helmet with a visor, possibly to keep her face visible, thereby boosting the morale of her troops with her presence.

Additionally, her standard, bearing the image of God holding the world, was another unique aspect of her battle gear, symbolizing her divine mission.

This exceptional armor not only served as her physical shield in numerous battles but also became an emblem of her extraordinary journey and the courage she embodied.

2. Illiterate but Insightful

Among the intriguing facts about Joan of Arc, her illiteracy juxtaposed with her remarkable insight stands out significantly.

Born into a peasant family in Domrémy, Joan’s upbringing did not include formal education, typical for women of her era, leaving her unable to read or write.

However, her illiteracy did not impede her profound understanding of complex religious and military matters.

During her trial, Joan’s responses to the sophisticated theological inquiries posed by learned clerics were astoundingly perceptive and shrewd.

Her insights often left her inquisitors baffled, as she navigated through their traps with a mix of innocence and acumen.

This blend of natural intelligence and divine inspiration was key to her leadership and charisma, inspiring her followers and disarming her critics. Joan’s wisdom, despite her lack of formal education, showcases her extraordinary mental faculties and deep spiritual connection, which played pivotal roles in her journey and legacy.

3. Nickname ‘La Pucelle’

Joan of Arc’s nickname, ‘La Pucelle’, translating to ‘The Maid’ in English, holds a special place in the tapestry of her history.

This title, far more than a mere moniker, was a testament to her claimed virginity, which Joan herself considered an essential aspect of her divine mission.

In the context of the Middle Ages, virginity was often associated with purity and moral integrity, qualities that Joan embodied and which were crucial for her role as a divinely appointed warrior.

The use of ‘La Pucelle’ also served to highlight her youth and unmarried status, distinguishing her from other female figures of her time.

This nickname became synonymous with Joan’s identity, encapsulating her spiritual purity, her role as a visionary, and her defiance of the conventional roles expected of women in the 15th century.

It was this very purity, as signified by ‘La Pucelle’, that lent credibility to her claims of divine visions and guidance, helping her to rally support and achieve a near-mythical status among her contemporaries and in the annals of history.

4. Voices from Saints

Joan of Arc’s claim of hearing the voices of saints is a cornerstone of her historical narrative.

At the age of 13, she reportedly began experiencing visions and hearing voices, which she attributed to a divine source.

These voices, as Joan later testified, belonged to Saint Michael, Saint Catherine, and Saint Margaret, each bearing significant religious symbolism.

Saint Michael, a warrior archangel, represented protection and strength in battle, aligning with Joan’s military endeavors.

Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret, both martyred saints, symbolized piety and resilience in the face of adversity, resonating with Joan’s own journey.

These voices instructed her on a divine mission to support Charles VII and help expel the English from France during the Hundred Years’ War.

This claim not only propelled her into a leadership role in the French army but also played a critical role in her trial, where she was accused of heresy and witchcraft.

Joan’s steadfast assertion of this divine guidance, even in the face of skepticism and interrogation, highlights the depth of her faith and the centrality of these visions to her historic role in the war and as a symbol of French nationalism and religious devotion.

5. Prophecy Fulfillment

Among the many fascinating facts about Joan of Arc, her perceived fulfillment of a medieval prophecy stands out.

This prophecy, popular in France, foretold that a maiden from Lorraine would rise to save France.

Joan, a simple peasant girl from Domrémy in Lorraine, fit this description remarkably well.

When she appeared on the scene in 1429, claiming divine guidance to support Charles VII and expel the English from France, many saw her as the embodiment of this prophecy.

Her emergence during the desperate phase of the Hundred Years’ War, where the French were on the brink of defeat, lent an air of divine inevitability to her mission.

This belief in her prophetic role bolstered her acceptance among the French populace and the royal court.

Her subsequent military successes, most notably lifting the Siege of Orléans, only reinforced the notion that she was the prophesied savior.

The convergence of Joan’s life with this prophecy not only shaped her role in history but also contributed significantly to the mythical aura that still surrounds her legacy.

6. Haircut as a Statement

Joan of Arc’s pageboy haircut, a distinctive and defiant choice, marked a significant departure from the norms of 15th-century France.

In an era when women’s long hair symbolized femininity and adherence to social conventions, Joan’s short, cropped style was a bold statement of nonconformity.

Adopted around 1429 when she began her military campaign, this haircut was practical for wearing a helmet and armor, and symbolized her rejection of traditional gender roles.

By choosing a style resembling that of a young knight or pageboy, Joan visually aligned herself with the soldiers she led, breaking barriers in a male-dominated military.

This hairstyle not only facilitated her role on the battlefield but also became a symbol of her spiritual conviction and unwavering courage.

Joan’s pageboy haircut transcended mere fashion; it was an emblem of her unique identity as a warrior and a saint, challenging societal norms and leaving a lasting impact on history.

7. Capture and Ransom

Joan of Arc’s capture and ransom were pivotal moments in her extraordinary yet tragic life story.

In May 1430, during a military engagement near Compiègne, Joan was captured by the Burgundian faction, allies of the English in the Hundred Years’ War.

The Burgundians, recognizing her significant value, held her for ransom.

This marked a turning point in Joan’s fate. Despite her crucial role in the French war efforts and her previous victories, the French crown made no substantial effort to secure her release.

The Burgundians, after a prolonged negotiation period, sold Joan to the English in November 1430 for a hefty sum, a testament to her perceived importance.

The English, eager to discredit Joan and by extension, the legitimacy of the French king whom she had helped crown, subjected her to a politically charged trial in Rouen for charges including heresy and witchcraft.

Joan’s capture and subsequent ransom not only underscored the brutal nature of medieval warfare and politics but also set the stage for her eventual martyrdom, adding a poignant chapter to her enduring legacy.

8. Trial and Execution

Joan of Arc’s trial and execution, steeped in political and religious intrigue, remain one of the most controversial episodes in medieval history.

After her capture by the Burgundians and subsequent sale to the English in 1430, Joan was put on trial in Rouen, the English-occupied Normandy, in 1431.

The trial was overseen by Bishop Pierre Cauchon, a pro-English clergyman, and lacked any semblance of fairness or impartiality.

Charged with over 70 counts including heresy, witchcraft, and dressing in men’s clothing, Joan faced a panel of theologians and judges biased against her.

The trial was conducted in Latin, a language Joan did not understand, and she was denied legal counsel. Her responses, marked by simplicity and piety, frustrated her accusers.

Eventually, under threat of immediate execution, Joan signed a confession, which she later recanted.

Declared a relapsed heretic, Joan was sentenced to be burned at the stake. On May 30, 1431, at just 19 years of age, she was executed in Rouen’s Old Market Square.

Her trial and execution were later deemed unjust, and she was declared a martyr by the Catholic Church, which canonized her as a saint in 1920.

Joan of Arc’s story, from her trial to her execution, has since become a symbol of resistance against oppression and a testament to personal conviction.

9. Posthumous Rehabilitation

Joan of Arc’s posthumous rehabilitation, a remarkable turn of events, occurred nearly a quarter-century after her execution.

In 1456, a retrial, officially known as the “nullification trial,” was initiated by Pope Callixtus III at the behest of Joan’s mother, Isabelle Romée, and the now reigning French King, Charles VII.

This trial was vastly different from the first. It involved extensive investigations, including eyewitness accounts from the original trial and testimony from those who knew Joan.

The proceedings, unlike her initial trial, were conducted fairly and thoroughly.

In July 1456, the original verdict was declared null and void by the appellate court, which found that the 1431 trial had been tainted by procedural errors and a lack of evidence.

Joan was exonerated of all charges, with the court proclaiming her martyrdom and acknowledging her devoutness and purity of faith.

This rehabilitation was not just a personal vindication for Joan but also a political move to clear Charles VII’s name, as his coronation was closely associated with her.

Joan’s posthumous rehabilitation transformed her from a heretic to a martyr and eventually a national symbol of France, paving the way for her eventual canonization as a saint in 1920.

10. Canonization and Legacy

Joan of Arc’s canonization as a saint and her enduring legacy are testament to her remarkable transformation from a condemned heretic to a revered saint.

Her journey to sainthood began centuries after her death, gaining momentum in the late 19th century amidst a resurgence of French nationalism and Catholic fervor.

Advocates for her sainthood, highlighting her devoutness and patriotism, found a receptive audience in the Catholic Church, which was seeking symbols of moral and spiritual resilience.

After her posthumous rehabilitation in 1456, it took until May 16, 1920, for Pope Benedict XV to canonize her, amidst a world still reeling from the First World War.

Joan’s canonization was not only a religious acknowledgment of her piety and martyrdom but also a nationalistic celebration, reinforcing her status as a French national heroine.

Her legacy has since permeated various facets of culture and history; she has been the subject of numerous artworks, literature, and films, symbolizing various virtues such as bravery, faith, and resistance against oppression.

Joan of Arc remains an iconic figure, her story resonating with diverse groups for different reasons, from feminist empowerment to religious inspiration, making her one of the most enduring and versatile figures in history.

Biography: Facts About Joan of Arc

Full Name:

Joan of Arc (Jeanne d’Arc in French)

Date of Birth:

January 6, 1412

Place of Birth:

Domrémy, a village in northeastern France

Date of Death:

May 30, 1431 (executed at Rouen, France)


Joan of Arc is most known for her role as a military leader and a symbol of French patriotism during the Hundred Years’ War.

Major Achievements:

  • Crowning of Charles VII: Her crowning achievement was witnessing the coronation of Charles VII as the rightful King of France in Reims Cathedral, a critical moment in the war.


Joan of Arc’s legacy is profound:

  • She is revered as a national hero and symbol of French unity.
  • Her unwavering faith and courage in the face of adversity have inspired countless individuals.
  • Joan of Arc’s canonization as a saint by the Catholic Church in 1920 solidified her status as a spiritual icon.
  • Her story continues to be celebrated in literature, art, and popular culture, ensuring that her memory endures for centuries.

Wrap-up: Facts About Joan of Arc

As we conclude our sampling of the many fascinating facts about Joan of Arc, it’s clear that her legacy extends far beyond the battlefields of France.

Her story, enriched by these lesser-known details, paints a portrait of a young woman who was not only a fearless warrior but also a figure of profound spiritual and moral strength.

The layers of Joan’s life, from her humble beginnings to her posthumous rehabilitation and eventual canonization, remind us that history is often more intricate and human than it first appears.

Reflecting on these facts about Joan of Arc, we gain not just knowledge about a historical figure, but also insights into the resilience of the human spirit.

Joan’s life, marked by conviction and courage, continues to inspire and intrigue, offering lessons that resonate across centuries.

In revisiting her story, we are reminded of the power of faith, the complexities of history, and the enduring nature of a true hero’s legacy.

Joan of Arc’s tale, rich in detail and meaning, remains a timeless beacon of inspiration and intrigue.

For more faith related content, check out my article Faith in Arms: 9 Legendary Warrior Saints Through the Ages and List of Popes from Peter to Present Day!

Also, for more content on legendary women leaders from long ago, check out my articles below:

FAQs: Facts About Joan of Arc

1. In which battles did Joan of Arc take part during the Hundred Years’ War?

Joan of Arc participated in several key battles during the Hundred Years’ War, which were instrumental in turning the tide in favor of the French.

Her involvement in these battles not only demonstrated her remarkable leadership but also significantly boosted the morale of French troops.

Some of the notable battles include:

Siege of Orléans (October 1428 – May 1429): This was Joan’s first major military engagement and perhaps her most famous. Her arrival lifted the siege and marked a turning point in the war.

Battle of Jargeau (June 1429): This was Joan’s first offensive battle.

The French forces successfully captured the town of Jargeau from the English.

Battle of Meung-sur-Loire (June 1429): Shortly after Jargeau, Joan led the French army to victory in this battle, helping to recapture the bridge at Meung-sur-Loire from English control.

Battle of Beaugency (June 1429): This battle resulted in another significant victory for Joan and the French army, leading to the English retreat from Beaugency.

Battle of Patay (June 1429): Considered one of Joan’s greatest military successes, the French forces achieved a decisive victory over the English, marking a turning point in the war.

Siege of Paris (September 1429): Although ultimately unsuccessful, this was a bold attempt by Joan to capture Paris from the English.

Battle of Compiègne (May 1430): This was the battle during which Joan was captured.

While she was organizing a counterattack against a Burgundian assault, she was pulled off her horse and taken prisoner.

These battles, particularly the Siege of Orléans and the Battle of Patay, were crucial in shifting the momentum of the Hundred Years’ War in favor of the French.

Joan’s role in these battles elevated her to the status of a national heroine in France.

2. What were the three miracles attributed to Joan of Arc that led to her being declared a saint?

Joan of Arc’s canonization as a saint by the Catholic Church in 1920 was based on the examination of her life and virtues, as well as the recognition of miracles attributed to her intercession.

For sainthood, the Church typically requires proof of miracles, which are often healings that have no scientific explanation.

However, in the case of Joan of Arc, the specific miracles that led to her canonization are not as widely documented or detailed as those of some other saints.

The process of her canonization involved a lengthy investigation, starting in the late 19th century, into her life, her trial, her martyrdom, and the impact she had on those around her and subsequent generations.

The focus was heavily on her extraordinary faith, her heroic virtues, her martyrdom for her beliefs, and widespread devotion to her over the centuries.

While specific documented miracles are less emphasized in her canonization compared to other saints, there were numerous accounts of miraculous healings and other phenomena attributed to her intercession after her death.

These accounts played a role in building the case for her sainthood, along with her historical and religious significance.

It’s important to note that Joan’s canonization was as much about her remarkable life and martyrdom as it was about specific miraculous events.

Her unique role in history, her unwavering faith under extreme adversity, and her lasting impact on the Catholic faith were central to her recognition as a saint.

3. Is there a monument or marker at the place where Joan of Arc was executed?

Yes, there is a monument marking the place where Joan of Arc was executed.

It is located in the Old Market Square (Place du Vieux-Marché) in Rouen, France, the site of her execution by burning on May 30, 1431.

The monument is known as the “Eglise Sainte-Jeanne-d’Arc” (Church of Saint Joan of Arc).

This modern church, which also serves as a memorial, was completed in 1979 and is notable for its unique, sweeping architecture, designed to evoke the idea of an upturned Viking ship and a fisherman’s hat.

The church stands as a tribute to Joan of Arc’s memory and is a significant historical site.

Inside, there are stained glass windows that were originally from the 16th-century Church of Saint Vincent, which was destroyed during World War II.

The windows were restored and placed in the new church, adding a profound historical connection to the site.

Additionally, there is a cross at the precise spot where Joan was believed to have been burned at the stake, serving as a poignant reminder of her martyrdom.

The area has become a place of remembrance and reflection, drawing visitors from around the world to honor Joan of Arc’s legacy.

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